Bachelorprojektrapporter


Bachelorprojektrapporter udfærdiget af studerende på FMS' 6. semester i forbindelse med  afslutning på uddannelsen.

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A

Akkumulering af overskudsenergi & anvendelse, Danfoss A/S

(Senest redigeret: torsdag, 8. december 2016, 19:56)

Abstract

The issues covered in this report is the existing knowledge gap regarding reconstruction, regulation and integration of the energy storage tank in the overall district heating system. A clarification of the charging potential from different units in the district heating system and the potential gas saving.

Problem statements.
How to reconstruct the piping and regulate the energy storage tank so charging with all units in the overall district heating system I possible. How to implement the energy storage tank in the overall control algorithm. Clarify the charging potential from the heat pump in L2, the heat pump in L11 and the energy recovery system in the oil evaporator.

Methods primarily used are tests conducted on the heating system and specific units and interviews of the staff. Theories used are heat transfer and gas theory.

The reconstruction can be kept to a minimum by using the existing pipeline and inserting valves to regulate the flow. Integrating the tank as a unit in the priority list in the control algorithm allows intelligent use. Both the heat pump in L11 and the recovery system in the oil evaporator can be used to charge the tank. The heat pump in L2 can be used if the outlet temperature is raised to 80 °C. A potential gas saving of 4.706 Nm3 is possible.


Aksialforskydning af pumpetandhjul på Bayard klassen. Fred. Olsen Windrarrier

(Senest redigeret: torsdag, 8. december 2016, 18:30)

Fred. Olsen Windcarrier are experiencing failure of their main engine lubrication oil pumps, mounted on the Bayard Class. The driven gear on the outside of the pump is mounted on its shaft via a press fit. During service, the gear has a tendency of moving along the shaft towards the pump housing. This results in contact between the outside pump gear and the pump housing, which contributes to metal shavings in the lubrication oil.

Fred. Olsen Windrarrier suspect vibrations from ship maneuvering being the cause of failed lubrication oil pumps. The Bayard Class operates as a Crew Transfer Vessel meaning the ships are designed to land at sea wind turbines in order to make a safe transfer. During transfer, the vessel pushes its bow against the turbine, generating noticeable vibrations through the vessel. Fred. Olsen Windcarrier have therefore been practicing vibration measurements during simulated service operation. The measurements discovered heavy pulsing power changes on the propeller shaft causing the pump experiencing axial forces.

Due to the nature of the ships purpose and operation, the pulsing power on the propeller shaft is unavoidable and the lubricating oil pumps has now been preventively changed to a similar pump but with a greater press fit. The new pumps capability of handling the axial forces is jet unknown and therefore will this project examines the possibility of changing from the original press fit assemble, to a key fit combined with shaft shoulder and locking ring. This will require a new gear and axel design.

Physical conditions and forces affecting the pumps gear is described and analyzed. Methods for examination of the changed design is mainly based on various strength calculations. Hydraulic power and basic machinery calculations are also being performed.

The first anticipated design showed to fail during strength calculations and had to be redesigned in order to pass strength requirements.

The second and final design successfully met strength requirements. It gives a rough indication that the new assemble design is a possible option to prevent the pump gear moving on the shaft towards the pump housing.


Automation af olieudskillere - Claus Sørensen A/S

(Senest redigeret: torsdag, 8. december 2016, 21:52)

The purpose of this project is to find suitable solution to automate a drain of oil from the pump containers through two oil separators at the cold storage, Claus Sørensen A/S, Vejle. The cooling system at Claus Sørensen A/S, Vejle is an ammonia pump circulated station. The technicians at Claus Sørensen A/S spends much time draining the oil manually, which takes time from other important work tasks in the cold storages. It is requested that the solution can be made fully automatic, that the automation does not include adding any external energy sources and that the payback time does not exceed more than three years.

To find a solution, specific sensors is chosen and tested, to determine whether these sensors can be used in automation. Besides that an analysis of the cooling circuit is made, to clarify the different states the ammonia has during the cooling process, and determine which of these states can be used in the automatic solution.

It turns out that the automation could be made, using capacitive sensors and using hot gas from the condensation receiver as a propellant of the oil. The payback time for the costs of the installation of the new automation is within 2,98 and 6,7 years.


B

Bachelorprojekt - Horsens Fjernvarme

(Senest redigeret: torsdag, 8. december 2016, 19:43)

Abstract 

At Horsens incineration plant, they experience problems, keeping the superheaters in the boilers clean and free of deposits, and hence less effective. Because of that, they order explosions cleaning with dynamite once every month, besides of the existing cleaning methods, acoustic gas cleaners and chok-blast. Explosion cleaning is however, an expensive method, and this is why they, at the incineration plant wants to search for another way to clean their superheaters, and know if it is possible for the investment to be profitable within a maximum of 5 years.

In the project, there will be explained which methods there exist to clean boilers and superheaters.

Today the yearly operating costs, for cleaning of the superheaters, amounts to 173,000. A deal is received for, 4 soot blowers total, 2 for each boiler, at 168,000. However, it is estimated on grounds related to areas not included in the deal, that the investment will be closer to 269,000.

The project sets out a scenario, where the operating conditions for the soot blowers will be once every 48 hours, and still run with acoustic gas cleaners and chok-blast, and one yearly explosive cleaning on each boiler. Based on the mentioned scenario, the investment will result in a repayment period for 2.5 years. It will therefore be recommendable for Horsens incineration plant, to perform this investment.


Bachelorprojekt ved Gråsten Varme A/S

(Senest redigeret: tirsdag, 20. januar 2015, 11:30)

Abstract

This project is carries out of an internship in Gråsten Varme A/S. The internship is a part of the final semester in the education as a Marine and Technical engineer at Frederica Maskinmester Skole.  

This project are based on Gråsten Varme A/S desire to expand their solar collector's park.  Through analysis and investigation of their current location and system, this project will enclose and answer to what factors that are included in the process of expanding. The first thing to consider when expanding their solar collector's park is the location. Location of the new plant is already established and is located in continuance to the existing plant. There is in this project includes answers on how many solar collector's the locations capacity are.

After the answer on location matters, the next step in the process of expansion is to calculate how much sun energy the solar collectors can distribute to the plant. This project includes calculation of three types of angles of inclination for the solar collectors. Each different type of angle will give a different outcome that are analysed. Pumps and heating exchanger is also analysed according to the expansion of the plant. Furthermore, this project includes factors such as consumer base (households) a new plant will bring to the company. 

Batteripakke som backupforsyning til flyhindringslys - Nukissiorfiit

(Senest redigeret: onsdag, 9. december 2015, 20:35)

In south Greenland at the 60kV high voltage line there are three fjord span. All of them have aircraft obstruction light. The backup supply for these consist of Diesel Generators, which have a high maintenance cost.

In order to reduce the maintenance cost, this project analyses the possibilities to use a battery- pack as a backup supply.

Additionally of the examination and comparing it on the reliability on these supply-sources.
For selecting the battery-producer, experience-data is obtained from Tele Greenland, which have used batteries for 27 years. In cooperation with PM Energi A/S the yearly maintenance cost is determined to 162.000 DKK. The yearly maintenance cost for the battery pack is been calculating at 11.500 DKK. Therefore is the yearly saving at maintenance 150.500 DKK.

The two supply securities are compared to the accessibility of the maintenance theory. Here as reliability, maintainability and maintenance support as the starting point. The diesel generators have no duplicates, and are hard to access in the winter period. By dividing the battery pack in strings, the system gets a higher reliability. Furthermore there can be duplicated more vital components, like the placement of the battery pack by the foot of the mountain, also gives a higher reliability.

The conclusion is therefore that a battery pack is the most reliability, accessible and has the highest accessibility. 

Belastningstilpasset pumpedrift - Fredericia Fjernvarme

(Senest redigeret: tirsdag, 26. maj 2015, 13:24)

The district heating demand in the Danmarksgade District in Fredericia has increased to a level where expensive boiler operation has become necessary in cold periods, due to a too small transit pipeline between the supply center in Danmarksgade and the exchange center in Gl. Havn. To address this problem, Fredericia District Heating has implemented a new pump at the Gl. Havn center to operate as an extra supply point for the Danmarksgade District. This makes it possible to reduce heat losses in the transit pipeline and to reduce the total pump operating costs depending on the pump configurations used in each load area.

The purpose of this project is therefore to clarify how much the new pump operating configurations can influence the overall operating costs at all load areas, though analysis and operating cost calculations, so a load customized pump operation can be obtained.

The project concludes that the optimal solution for Fredericia District Heating is to let the Gl. Havn pump supply the entire district heating consumption in the load areas from 10Gj/h to 40Gj/h at the summer valve settings and from 25Gj/h to 30Gj/h at the winter valve settings. Furthermore it is concluded that the pump has to operate with a speed of at a least 80% in the load areas from 45Gj/h to 75Gj/h at the summer valve settings and from 35Gj/h to 120Gj/h at the winter valve settings.

Besparelse på energivandssystemet - Arla Foods A/S

(Senest redigeret: fredag, 11. december 2015, 09:54)

The purpose of this project has been to examine the opportunities of optimizing the energy water system at the Arla dairy plant in Taulov. Arla has a global goal of reducing their emission of greenhouse gasses by 3% each year until 2020.
The project has been restricted to the energy system, specifically the milk heater, in the cheese making department number 3.

The project was formulated upon two hypotheses.
The initial hypotheses involve two solutions.
The first one was to examine the possibilities of savings by cleaning the milk heater on the non-product side of the heat exchanger, which isn't a possibility today, therefore reducing the consumption of hot water from the kettle by 10%. The second was to examine the possibilities of 'softening' the 430 m3 of water in the energy system which, as of today, contains excess Calcium.
The analysis of the first hypothesis showed, that Arla could save as much as 287.828 DDK a year, provided the heat exchanger had a 0,2 mm coating of calcium. It also showed that in renting a 'softener' the risk of calcium build up would be minimized in the future.

The second hypothesis was to examine the effect of installing a heat pump to preheat the energy water to 42 oC before it was transferred to the milk heater. This was to reduce the consumption of hot water by a 100%. The source of the energy to the heating was to come from the whey pasteurizer number 2.
The analyses of the hypothesis showed the solution was possible but, because of the production frequencies to the aforementioned equipment, it would have been better with a more continuous heat source.

The best solutions for Arla is to, clean the heat exchangers better and 'soften' the energy water.

Besparelse på energivandssystemet hos Arla Foods A/S

(Senest redigeret: fredag, 11. december 2015, 08:07)

The purpose of this project has been to examine the opportunities of optimizing the energy water system at the Arla dairy plant in Taulov. Arla has a global goal of reducing their emission of greenhouse gasses by 3% each year until 2020.
The project has been restricted to the energy system, specifically the milk heater, in the cheese making department number 3.

The project was formulated upon two hypotheses.
The initial hypotheses involve two solutions.
The first one was to examine the possibilities of savings by cleaning the milk heater on the non-product side of the heat exchanger, which isn't a possibility today, therefore reducing the consumption of hot water from the kettle by 10%. The second was to examine the possibilities of 'softening' the 430 m3 of water in the energy system which, as of today, contains excess Calcium.
The analysis of the first hypothesis showed, that Arla could save as much as 287.828 DDK a year, provided the heat exchanger had a 0,2 mm coating of calcium. It also showed that in renting a 'softener' the risk of calcium build up would be minimized in the future.

The second hypothesis was to examine the effect of installing a heat pump to preheat the energy water to 42 oC before it was transferred to the milk heater. This was to reduce the consumption of hot water by a 100%. The source of the energy to the heating was to come from the whey pasteurizer number 2.
The analyses of the hypothesis showed the solution was possible but, because of the production frequencies to the aforementioned equipment, it would have been better with a more continuous heat source.

The best solutions for Arla is to, clean the heat exchangers better and 'soften' the energy water.

Brand i elfilter på AMV1. HOFOR

(Senest redigeret: fredag, 27. maj 2016, 11:29)

Abstract

A fire occurred, in the electrostatic precipitator at Amager Power Plant block 1 (AMV1).

In connection with a shutdown of Block 1, at Amager Power Plant, there was found an accumulation of fly ash in the electrostatic precipitator. There was requisitioned a suction vehicle to remove the fly ashes. On that occasion, the hose caught fire, when they were sucking the fly ashes from the electrostatic precipitator.

This project will describe the physical conditions were present, and shows why this incident could happen. The hypothesis is that there must have been unburned particles in the accumulated ash.

The residual carbon analyses from the electrostatic precipitator will be analyzed, and it will be determined if one sampling point is representative for the complete electrostatic precipitator. The wood pellets that were burned in the boiler before the incident is analyzed, and it is determined if they honored the quality requirements of Amager power plant.

There will be analyzed on the wood pellets, do they meet the requirements from the mill manufacture.

The project will conclude that unburnt particles are smoldering in the electrostatic precipitator, and the cause of that is that the boiler is not fit to completely burn the type of wood pellets used, because of their particle distribution.



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